Shenzhen was designated as a national pilot city for comprehensive reform. It is the national economic center, science and technology center, regional finance center and commercial and logistics center. It strives to take the lead in creating a moderately prosperous city and achieving socialist modernization.
Shenzhen is a coastal city in South China, adjoining Hong Kong. Its longitude lies between 113.43 and 114.38 degrees east, and its latitude between 22.24 and 22.52 degrees north. Sitting south of the Tropic of Cancer, it is in southern Guangdong Province. Demarcated from Hong Kong by the Shenzhen River in the south, it is bordered by Dongguan and Huizhou in the north, Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay in the east and the Lingding Sea and the mouth of the Pearl River in the west.
The total area of Shenzhen is 1,997.47 square kilometers. Shenzhen has more than 310 rivers and streams, which are associated with the nine hydrographic systems. Shenzhen has a vast sea area, covering 1,145 square kilometers and boasting 261 kilometers of coastline and typical subtropical monsoon climate and vegetation. The city also has rich natural attractions, including popular beaches such as Dameisha, Xiaomeisha, Xichong, Dapeng Peninsula National Geopark and nature reserves like the Mangrove Nature Reserve, Wutong Mountain and Inner Lingding Island.
Shenzhen has a subtropical monsoon climate. The weather is generally temperate to mild, with plenty of rain and sunshine. The annual average temperature is 22.4 degrees Celsius. A total of 355 days a year are frost-free. The yearly rainfall totals 1,933.3 millimeters and the average annual number of hours of sunshine is 2,120.5.
Official Trees and Flower
The litchi and mangrove trees are Shenzhen's official trees and bougainvillea is the official flower.
The earliest-known records bearing the name Shenzhen date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Shenzhen became a township at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Local people called the drains in paddy fields "zhen" or "chong." Shenzhen literally means "deep drains" because the area used to be crisscrossed by rivers and streams - and still is, today - with deep drains in the paddy fields. Shenzhen is also known as "Roc City" because maps of the city's outline resemble a flying roc with its wings spread.
The city of Shenzhen was established in 1979. In August of the following year, the country's first special economic zone was established here.
Human activity in the area dates back more than 6,700 years. The area was founded as a county 1,700 years ago and is home to 600-year-old cultural relics such as Nantou Ancient City and Dapeng Fortress. The Hakka people migrated to the area from central China about 300 years ago.
Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over nine districts and one new area: Luohu, Futian, Nanshan, Yantian, Bao'an, Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan and Guangming districts, and Dapeng new area. The Central Government expanded the special economic zone to cover the whole city on July 1, 2010.
There has been migration to southern Guangdong and what is now Shenzhen since the late Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), but the population increased dramatically after the city of Shenzhen was established. By the end of 2017, the permanent resident population reached 12,528,300, of which 4,347,200 had permanent hukou. As a city of migrants, Shenzhen is open-minded, tolerant and innovative. It is an ideal place for domestic and international talent to start businesses. It has been voted as China's Most Dynamic City， City Most Favored by Migrant Workers and City Most Favored by Domestic and Overseas Talent.
Shenzhen is the only city in Guangdong where Mandarin is the dominant language, because of its huge migrant population from all over China. Many public service employees, professionals and businesspeople speak English too. Most of the young people speak English and Cantonese. The Shenzhen Speaks Foreign Languages campaign is conducted across the city to encourage more residents and government employees to learn to speak foreign languages.
The government of Shenzhen has actively driven its own transformation of functions and strengthened the construction of a service-oriented government. Under the guidance of building a legal, responsible and efficient government, it has improved its administrative transparency and management efficiency, in order to provide a fair, transparent, efficent and law-governed environment for the progress of the society and the welfare of the citizens.
Shenzhen has three main industries, namely, emerging industry, advanced manufacturing industry and modern service industry. The emerging industry contributes about 40.9% of the GDP growth, the advanced manufacturing industry occupies 70% of the industrial sector, and the modern service industry accounts for 70% of the service industry.
Shenzhen is a link between the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong and a transport hub for coastal southern China. The city leads in high-tech development, financial services, foreign trade, shipping, and creative and cultural industries. It has undertaken a mission to pilot China's structural reform and continuous opening up to the outside world. Shenzhen is third on the Chinese mainland in terms of economic power and is one of the country's top cities for economic returns. In 2017, Shenzhen's economy maintained a healthy momentum of growth. GDP grew by 8.8% to 2.24 trillion yuan. Export and import volume has stayed at the top of the nation's large and medium-sized cities for the 25th consecutive year.
Shenzhen has land, sea, air and rail ports. There are nine wharfs, such as Shekou wharf, Fuyong wharf and Yantian wharf, in Shenzhen and the city has six railway stations, including Shenzhen Railway Station, Shenzhen North Railway Station and Shenzhen East Railway Station. The Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, an important rail link in the country, runs across Shenzhen. The Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport is a regional pivot airport and the fourth-largest airport in China. As one of the top 100 airports in the world, the Bao'an airport has so far launched 46 international flights and four flights to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.
Shenzhen has 15 checkpoints that allow the flow of both Chinese and foreign nationals. Luohu Checkpoint is China's busiest land passenger checkpoint, while Huanggang Checkpoint offers around-the-clock service. Futian Checkpoint offers seamless transfer by Metro to Hong Kong, and Shenzhen Bay Checkpoint offers both Hong Kong and Shenzhen immigration inspection services.
In 2017, Shenzhen's public security has been improved and the city has expedited the building of a "Safe Shenzhen." The city scored 85.18 points in residents' sense of security and 83.59 points in residents' satisfaction with police work after being evaluated by a third-party agency last year, both the highest among 21 cities in Guangdong Province. The city's public security bureau launched an online system based on data convergence in 2017 to integrate its different service systems, providing one-stop, streamlined and intelligent services for residents online. Currently, about 4.16 million users have registered on the platform and over 60 percent of cases were handled online. The bureau also developed and launched an all-in-one machine, which could help residents handle different public security affairs, to provide 24-hour service for residents.